小聊设计思想的腾飞。Design Thinking 概览。

合作社半年会后四处都于云计划思想,各处都以努力。我们领导人还是非常跟得及潮流的呗。因当哈佛经贸评论和福布斯的简报后“设计思想”在商贸中为大面积关注以及实践起来。前几年美国一等商学院就拿规划思想(design
thinking)纳入课程体系,斯坦福大学建D.School等。在John
Maeda《科技中的宏图》年报告,很多十分商厦跟独角兽的奠基者或高层里都出设计师在中,像IBM和麦肯锡前段时间宣布了那无与伦比高级职业中对设计师的任命。从04年届2016年来跨50小著名规划企业为买断,其中15,16年起26下。可见设计以商贸的青睐,及设计思想的火热。虽然十分生气,可能多人觉得他像VR、大数额、共享自行车等正起来之。实际上,“设计思想”(实际也是规划)做吧同一栽艺术已走过了同一段子非短的迈入历史了。何不歇一下,了解一下前身和近况也。做扫尾桌面研究后即便花了点时间整理了该文,把自工业时代到现影响设计思想的人物做只稍介绍,因事关内容实在是极多了,被放上来的,纯粹是圈怎么着人耳熟能详,哪些人记录的详尽些,不对的地方要指正,感谢伟大之互联网,感谢呢计划思想付诸实践的“先烈”们。

作者:Thomas Lockwood, University of Westminster PhD, Integrated design
Management.

1960面前 包豪斯的计划性思想,人文和浪费,国际现代主义和大众文化

更工业革命,大萧条和二战后的工业规划。 兼顾效率生产与美学为主的一代。

Design Thinking 概览

规划思想本质上是以用户也主导,强调考察,协作,快速学习,视觉化点子,快速概念原型,兼商业分析,最终影响创新以及小买卖策略的更新过程。他的目的是管顾客,设计师以及生意人士构成至成品、服务或者买卖的设计过程及。它是怀念像未来状态与拿产品,服务同体会带至市场及的工具。设计思想术语上来拘禁像是使用设计师的机灵与法解决问题,不管问题是怎的。它不克替专业设计师或措施及手艺设计,但其是诱发创新之一模一样栽方法。

设计思想的几乎独重要条件:

1.基于现场调研深入了解消费者

2.暨用户以及复合型团队联手协作,寻找突破性创新、显著提升与增加新价值及

3.由此视觉化,亲手体验和便捷原型来加快学习,快速取得用户举报。目标是透过快捷多次的败来获取创新。

4.原型化,可以是概念草图,粗糙的物理模块,或故事角色板,或平等组场景故事等

5.互为进行经贸分析,是老大重点之一点。

彼得·贝伦斯(Peter Behrens)

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业规划的先驱,第一个当代艺术设计师,是一代人的王牌,包括无与伦比资深的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就凡差不多“的修建哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三总人口且以外的工作室为他工作了。他是率先独尝试综合工艺和技艺整合的设计师。

Design Thinking / Design management / Design Leadership / Design strategy 的区别

作者的见是,
设计思想是一致种助发现非显性的急需要会,帮助创建新的化解方案的法子。设计管理偏重于管制及长官设计团队,过程和设计产出物(产品、服务、沟通、环境与互相)。设计负责人同筹划策略更多着想的凡设计思想和统筹管理的频率及出现物上。

包豪斯:全新设计策略的教导

1919年格罗皮乌斯以德国开创包豪斯,是首先所用贝伦斯的想法应用至高等教学中。密斯是终极一至校长。1930年于纳粹的下压力下关闭,学校的设计师们还搬向美国,二战后包豪斯的计划性哲学(平衡艺术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国之筹划思想,随着这些口当美国诸处落脚,设计之思量运动吧在全美各地开。

统筹思想在经贸、品牌,服务统筹,客户体验上

更新驱动商业的差距,设计使得创新。

唯独我们的题目都远远超过了经贸问题,像MIT和哈佛在解决的题目早已是网层面的问题,像我们的食品供给体系,儿童肥胖,急救健康相当,作为一个设计师以及设计思考者,有如此的时错过化解这样的题材是何等的欣,通过协调能够影响和改动社会问题。

统筹协作和咨询在美国发展启动

1920-1930次跟包豪斯同来震慑之美国工业和图设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是当美国落地之),这些设计师将规划协作与咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的傅同影响着美国底图像和工业规划。

  • 哈利·厄尔 Harley
    Earl
    ,首号在设计汽车及采用市场细分策略的设计师

    Chevrolet Corvette

  • 雷蒙德·洛威 Raymond
    Loewy
    ,设计咨询升级现有技术产品
    在非改任何技术下,通过结合美学、材料、制造大大改变十分年代丑陋之家电产品,第一各上上《时代》的设计师。他的规划不同让包豪斯的“形式从功能”(Form
    Follows
    Function),较偏于市场主义的“形式从市场”,他都说了:“当商品在同样的价跟效应下竞争,设计虽是唯一的别”。他成立及时极其深的计划性企业,接授设计委托,并为“洛威设计”的名义上,“洛威设计”在十分年代是同一栽名特新优精设计的意味、销售保障的代名词,这同一作法在今吧克见于一些规划企业。

    洛威之“阿汎提”设计草图,1963年

  • 亨利·德雷福斯 Henry
    Dreyfuss
    ,把食指坐因素做吧产品的为主设计
    当那1955年之上的《Designing for
    People》如出一辙写被论述了因人口乎仍的设计意见,以食指耶基本的计划性极端早实践者和开拓者。

    Designing for People 书中节选

  • 保罗·兰德 Paul
    Rand
    ,将品牌识别以及国际主义相结合
    IBM,ABC,FEEDX,西屋、NeXT等视觉系统的计划性,将包豪斯倡导的现代法与规划思想及美学标准,应用到商贸服务计划受到。

    IBM

ABC

“Design is relationship. Design is a relationship between form and
content.”

  • 乔治·尼尔森和查里斯夫妇,为人家与办公系统规划
    1945年乔治·尼尔森以Herman
    Miller做计划总监时即便将设计思想带上了家具概念设计中,设计师不以单干而是同平等群的设计师从网环境的角度来拘禁产品设计。在就同样意跟方针下查里斯与雷·埃蒙斯设计了Eames
    Loung
    Chair。Charles经常鼓励工作人员多开试验,他曾经说他的期望就是是“和那些事为毫无用处的档次之总人口一头坐班。这样见面磕磕碰碰发生新构思之火苗。”

    Eames Loung Chair

Chapter 1 Notes on the Evolution of Design Thinking: A Work in Progress

发展中之统筹思想

by Craig M. Vogel, Director of Center for Design Research and
Innovation, College of Design Architecture, Art and Planning, University
of Cincinnati

1960-1980 建立统筹执行,设计活动集中

统筹执行在短短的20年时间跨度里,不仅再次定义了统筹是什么,更是印证了它好据此来做呀。这个相对短但非常密集的阶段于全世界限量外出生了简单种植了不同之设计艺术。
60年份的美国=设计是
60年间的美国,工业设计与产品设计取得的首先略带步的进步是明媒正娶及由工程和正确区分出。但她们连没动得重远,工业设计尚是着重根据可量化,可度量的题目同事件。设计工作室通常以高等学校实验室或工厂,不像现在之工作室以城镇里出像咖啡厅一样的装点。
意味着有像MIT的Fuller建立多学科的天才团队拓展创新。

60年代斯堪的纳维亚=协同计划
以相同期,Fuller不同的斯堪的纳维亚企划,通过邀请大学与筹划讨论。这些设计师扮演促进者或指导者角色,每个人及家及工人或居民联手企划他们想只要使用的出品或者服务。开发了许多可观创新的品类,像Utopia,NJMF,DEMOkratiske
Stryringssystemer,DEMOS等扶持工人,工会,工作场合,政府部门应本着连变动的环境。
这种工作方式一直适用于我们现在领的服务规划,这种工作章程严重依赖设计师的底限做边筹划和引,使用工具如”Mock-up
envisionment(模拟设想)”,未来环,组织游戏,合作原型,人种学领域研究,社会调查等有新想法还是改进现有。高度与
和佚代,集体讨论。
及20世纪80年代中期,因为计算机的普及以及HCI(人机交互)的腾飞,斯堪的纳维亚的搭档规划终于迈出大西洋赶来美国,被大地叫参与式设计。

PETER BEHRENS: CORPORATE IDENTITY AND BRAND DIFFERENTIATION

Peter Behrens (14 April 1868 – 27 February 1940) was a
German
architect
and
designer.
He was important for the modernist
movement,
and several of the movement’s leading names (including Ludwig Mies van
der
Rohe,
Le
Corbusier
and Walter
Gropius)
worked for him in earlier stages of their careers. He was one of the
first designers who tried to synthesize the two polar positions of
technology and craft.

彼得·贝伦斯,德国建筑师,工业规划的先驱者,第一号当代艺术设计师,是一代人的国手,包括无与伦比闻名的现代主义建筑师
密斯·范德罗(坚持”少就凡差不多“的构哲学),勒·柯布西耶(功能主义之大),瓦尔特·格罗皮乌斯(包豪斯创办人),这三丁且以外的工作室为他工作了。他是率先独尝试综合工艺及技艺整合的设计师。

Buckminister Fuller 的正确性规划

1956年于在MIT 创意工程实验室教授CADS(Comprehensive Anticipatory Design
Science)。他的实验室应用科学方法发生设计。Fuller的章程成立在工程师、工业设计师、材料专家、化学专家的人才团队的根基及进行翻新。代表作品有:Geodesic
Domestic, the Dymaxion car, Triton city, the “Fly’s Eye” Dome等。

the Dymaxion car

“设计师是汇总了艺术家,发明家,机械师,经济专家及策略让平套。”

The BAUHAUS: A NEW DESIGN STRATEGY FOR EDUCATION

包豪斯:全新设计策略的教导

1919年格罗皮乌斯以道创建包豪斯,是首先所拿贝伦斯的想法应用及高等教学中。密斯是最后一顶校长。1930年当纳粹的压力下关闭,学校的设计师们都搬为美国,二战后包豪斯的统筹哲学(平衡术、科学、技术、批量生产)引领美国底宏图思想,随着这些人口以美国各个处落脚,设计的琢磨运动吗于全美各地放。

Scandinavian 协同计划

50年份为简练、少、功能性,具有包容性和民主性为特点之全有别于其他设计艺术的Scandinavian设计活动,在北欧国家一直本着系到今。受语言的阻碍使得这无异活动没有记录并传到更广大。60年代的Scandinavian协同计划于电脑的人机交互和劳务统筹及生为数不少的前行。

Chairs at the Danish Design Center, Denmark

CORPORATE AND CONSULTING DESIGN IN THE UNITED STATES,设计协作与咨询在美国的进步

1920-1930内跟包豪斯同有影响之美国工业以及图表设计师,像 Harley Earl,
Henry Dreyfuss, Walter Dorwin Teague, and Donald
Desky(都是于美国生的),这些设计师将设计协作和咨询用在实践上,与包豪斯的育及联手影响在美国的图像及工业设计。

Harley Earl and General Motors: Market Segmentation in the Auto Industry

Harley Earl 美国篇位在筹划汽车上动市场细分策略,1927-1959

Raymond Loewy, Design Consultant: Updating Existing Technology

Loewy merged aesthetics, materials, and manufacturing to transform the
loud and ugly electric refrigerator of the 1920s into a modern kichen
appliance. The consumer response was immediate. In one year, sales of
Sears’s Cold Spot increased from 65,000 to 250,000 units – without any
significant change in core technology.

Henry Dreyfuss: Integrating Human Factors as a Core Component of Product
Design

Dreyfuss developed a more scientific approach to human factors and
integrated that perspective with product aesthetics. “to develop
individuals who will be competent to change their environment to greater
conformity with moral ideals.” This became the basis for Dreyfuss’s
human-centered approach. He expressed those ideas in his 1955 book,
Designing for people. Dreyfuss was a more articulate practitioner of
human-centered design than was Loewy.

Paul Rand and Elliot Noyes: Corporate Identity and the International
Movement

Noyes was educated as an architect at Harvard and studied under Gropius
and Bauhaus furniture designer Marcel Breuer. Rand, for his part, was
heavily influenced by what had come to be called the Swiss Style of
graphic design and helped to build a relationship between Switzerland’s
Basel school of Design and Yale University.

One of the first strategic design decisions Rand and Noyes conceived for
international Business Machines was to reduce its long and awkward name
to IBM. Modern identities, they believed, needed to be easy to read and
pronounce in all applications and all languages. The new logo and
identity system was integrated with an approach to curtain wall
architecture that was applied to the new buildings at IBM, as well as to
the outer panel construction design of mainframe computer systems.

George Nelson and Charles and Ray Eames: System Design for Home and Work

When George Nelson was appointed design director for Herman Miller in
1945, he brought a new level of design thinking to the concept of
furniture design for the home and office.

Modern office buildings were being designed using a systematic approach,
and Nelson saw the interior office landscape similarly-as a potential
opportunity for the application of modular design design systems. Each
individual piece of furniture would act as one in a series of flexible
parts with multiple configurations that would fit the modern open office
that had come into being in the 1950s and ’60s.

The husband-and-wife team of Charles and Ray Eames contributed some of
their most important designs under this new strategy. Both of them
studied at Michigan’s Cranbrook Academy of Art, and both were influenced
by Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen. The Eames lounge chair and airport
seating solution, for Herman Miller, are two of the most influential
design projects of the twentieth century.

The ideas and work of Charles and Ray Eames represent a unique and vital
branch of design thinking. Their work is as powerful and influential as
that of Frank Lloyd Wright; yet they are virtually unknown outside of
the fields of design and architecture.

Herbert A. Simon

西蒙于1969出版的人为科学中,给规划一个新的分类和止。西蒙看凡事的宏图应给视为人造品,是理所当然之对立面。

“The engineer, and more generally the designer, is concerned with how
things ought to be — how they ought to be in order to attain goals,
and to function.”

“Everyone designs who devises courses of action aimed at changing
existing situations into preferred ones.”

FROM PRODUCT TO ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIAL CHANGE

In 1975 Bill Hannon founded the Design Management Institute(DMI) in
Boston, Massachusetts. This was the first professional organization in
the world dedicated to improving the role of design in business, and
helped to define design management as a new practice.

In 1976 Victor Papanek published his Design for the Real World, asking
designers to see the potential of design thinking for social and
environmental responsibility. He accused designers of catering to the
small percentage of consumers who have everything, while ignoring those
in lower income levels and emerging economies, as well as people with
disabilities.

In 1982, Ralph Caplan wrote in By design that Mahatma Gandhi’s concept
of nonviolent protest was one of the most effective design solutions in
history.

The Nobel laureate Herb Simon stated that there are really two types of
science. One concerns the world humans are responsible for producing(the
science of the artificial), and the other concerns the world in which
humans evolved(the science of the natural).

Science, engineering, and technology factor shifts have occurred in each
decade in the last century, opening new opportunities for designers. The
key ingredient for business success is the presence of both an
innovative CEO who sees design as an investment, not a cost, and a
strategic design director or consultant who can place the value of the
design at the center of the company. If either one leaves, the value of
design is jeopardized.
把设计作为是斥资以,是免是基金;设计策略是公司的中坚;这半碰缺一不可才可能当今日和未来化创新驱动的铺。

维克多·帕帕奈克 也实际世界计划

1971年
帕帕奈克的《为实世界计划》给当下底统筹行业投下了一如既往粒很炸弹。帕帕奈克提出自己对此规划目的性的新见解,即设计应当为广大百姓服务;设计不仅应该吗常规人劳,同时还须考虑吧残疾人服务;设计应该认真考虑地球之蝇头资源用问题,设计应该
为保障我们居住的地的有限资
源服务。维克多·帕帕奈克对绿色设计思潮有了直影响,他首次等提出了统筹伦理的历史观,即设计为何?在“波普”设计活动的同一切开喧嚣的风潮中,开始有人打设计理论的角度严肃提出“设计目的”问题。这对于当代规划之伦理、现代筹的目的性理论来说,是异常主要之一个起点。正因为起其一起点,日后的计划理论才起了尤其入木三分之进化。

Chapter 2 The Designful Company by Marty Neumeier

2008 Survey of Wicked Problems

  1. Balancing long-term goals with short-term demands
  2. Predicting returns on innovative concepts
  3. Innovating at the increasing speed of change
  4. Winning the war for world-class talent
  5. Combining profitability with social responsibility
  6. Protecting margins in a commoditizing industry
  7. Multiplying success by collaborating across silos
  8. Finding unclaimed yet profitable market space
  9. Addressing the challenge of eco-sustainability
  10. Aligning strategy with customer experience

A wicked problem is a puzzle so persistent, pervasive, and slippery that
it can seem insoluble.

Business at bottom is not mechanical but human. Today, we find that
innovation without emotion is uninteresting. Products without aesthetics
are not compelling, brands without meaning are undesirable, and business
without ethics is unsustainable. The management model that got us here
is underpowered to move us forward. To succeed, the new model must
replace the win-lose nature of the assembly line with the win-win nature
of the network.

生意的底线无是机要是丁。今天,我们发现创新没有感情是没意思的。产品无抖是未曾可比性的,品牌未曾意思价值是休见面来欲望想要的,而商业没有伦理是不行持续的。

The sure cure for Deming’s diseases, as well as for the top ten wicked
problems, is design. It’s the accelerator for the company car, the
powertrain for sustainable profits. Design drives innovation, innovation
powers brand, brand builds loyalty, and loyalty sustains profits. If you
want long-term profits, don’t start with technology-start with design.

There are really only two main components for business success: brands
and their delivery. All other activities- operations, finance,
manufacturing, marketing, sales, communications, human relations,
investor relations- are subcomponents.

Horst Rittel, “Wicked Problem”的倡导者

首批判聚焦让规划方理论的研究者之一,与他的长辈们不同,他主张人的体会与感受在统筹时的基本点。第一坏用气象学引入到经验设计被。

1980-1990 第二代设计思想理论的面世

以此时人们管拥有惊人创意的设计师和一般的设计区分开来,把这些设计师在显微镜下研究,试着摸来什么叫他俩灵感大爆发。在Nigel
Gross和Donald
Schön等研究员调查研究这些设计师独立工作时,及团伙协作时的计划性过程。从社会是角度他们注意到不管是个体要国有协作时设计创意无限要之是设计师的思量模式。这些规划过程的调查为新兴其他事情进行创造性思维打开了大门。

Nigel Gross

Nigel
Gross在研规划方法之前是人机交互领域的研究员。在外的精本《Designerly
ways of
Knowing》研讨设计师的想想与决策方式以及外正规不同的凡啊?这对构建统筹思想有着非常怪之影响。

“Everyone can — and does — design. We all design when we plan for
something new to happen, whether that might be a new version of a
recipe, a new arrangement of the living room furniture, or a new lay
tour of a personal web page. […] So design thinking is something
inherent within human cognition; it is a key part of what makes us
human.”

Donald Alan Schön

Donald Schön
背景是MIT的城市规划的讲解以及哲学家,他的绝大多数干活在反对60年间的筹划标准的技术性。他付出之反省实践,对于规划过程的功成名就十分重大。他的行事不仅大大影响了计划,而且影响了集体上世界。

“The reflective practitioner allows himself to experience surprise,
puzzlement, or confusion in a situation which he finds uncertain or
unique. He reflects on the phenomenon before him, and on the prior
understandings which have been implicit in his behaviour. He carries
out an experiment which serves to generate both a new understanding of
the phenomenon and a change in the situation.”

1990-2005 服务规划以及多企划工具的出现

本条时,设计的限量第二不好扩大。在90年份初设计的限由创造人工制品扩大到相互和劳务达标。这种转移支持自Buchanan的《设计思想中之狰狞问题》一写探讨了规划缓解复杂问题、模糊目标的潜力。
至2003年,欧洲各处的高校及卡内基梅隆在四处开始上课服务规划。服务统筹之起来,及复杂问题为有新的计划性方式工具提供了好环境,包括也不设计师和参与筹划的家伙。

Donald Norman, User-Centered Design

咀嚼是、人因工等统筹领域的知名世界。在1988年问世的《日常的筹划》提出
“UCD”以用户为中心的计划。
我们拥有的筹划应该根据“适合用记”这个大概的概念模型。他的见地的核心是“我们日常生活中的大部学问都于条件上,而非是当脑力里”,以用户也主干的法好理解用户之求以及发现左,并采取行动解决。诺曼的UCD设计思想开辟了新的筹划方视角。

Richard Buchanan,整合设计

Buchanan 原卡梅隆设计学院之长官,他通过以Rittel和Simon
的理论与
Ezio
Manzini的宏图执行互动沟通,重新讨论了计划以缓解Wicked
Problems中之角色,在1992发表的《Wicked Problems in Design
Thinking》中画了同长长的设计思想到履新的不二法门。在后头的有关计划思想的《Design
as a New Liberal
Art》中说设计开吗正规的力量是“整合”,也许是以专业性的少,所以她再有连续各个学科的或者。

Design has no subject matter — that’s what make this a powerful
discipline. We MAKE our subject matter.

Liz Sanders 工具先导者

Sanders,实验心理学与人类学的PhD. ,Make
Tools的开创者,是行使设计研究领域的先驱者。今天众多以人数啊骨干的宏图与统筹思想被动用的家伙,技术与章程还可以落她。她呢是协作规划工具箱的合伙人,对于规划研究感兴趣的人数吧,这个是一个实用的指针。

Convivial ToolBox

This human-centered design revolution is causing us to rethink the
design process. In order to drive the human-centered design
revolution, we need to tap into the imaginations and dreams not only
of designers, but also of everyday people. New design spaces are
emerging in response to everyday people’s needs for creativity.

IDEO 融汇者

IDEO

IDEO1991年隔三差五出于三小设计企业合并而成为,分别是David Delley
Design(斯坦福教授 David Kelley 创建),Based在伦敦的Moggridge
Associates和以旧金山之ID-Two(两者都是由Bill Moggridge创建), 及 Matrix
Product Design(由Mike Nuttall
创建)。大约于Buchanan构建统筹思想的以,IDEO完成了三只企业之集合,在未来之十年更上一层楼吃,从学界和计划执行吸引了同批好有影响力的总人口投入。
跟同时期的统筹企业差,他们还要请了人类学,商业战略,教育或正常等不同领域的大方来指导与扩展他们计划团队和流程。这个差不多学科团队的国策在上马几年晚获取了过多之桂冠。
以后他俩开始推广设计思想与坐人数乎核心的设计,在d.school推出了教育计划,撰写书本,并以环球之高等学校实践推广。

David & Tom Kelley

IDEO两独大家当及育工作,Kelley兄弟都是畅销书的撰稿人。
他们都擅长设计到号管理。他们合作的书《创新自信力》,讲述创新创意之视角,帮助个人和机关释放潜能,树立创新自信。
赶早前的Tom
Kelley的《创新的方》里亮了IDEO创新思维。

“It turns out that creativity isn’t some rare gift to be enjoyed by
the lucky few — it’s a natural part of human thinking and behavior. In
too many of us it gets blocked. But it can be unblocked. And
unblocking that creative spark can have far-reaching implications for
yourself, your organization, and your community.” Tom Kelley

Tim Brown

[Tim Brown]
(https://www.ideo.com/people/tim-brown)IDEOIDEO)的CEO和工业设计师,
Brown一直是统筹思想和翻新的能动倡导者 ,Design
thinking。他写作了过多针对非设计师运用规划思想方面的篇章,其中统筹变更整个,设计思想如何变革组织同激励创新。

In order to survive in today’s complex world, organizations need to
generate, embrace, and execute on new ideas. That takes creativity and
a creatively capable workforce. It’s the secret sauce, or in
evolutionary terms, it’s what keeps you fit. Organizations without it
can’t compete.

Jane Fulton Suri

起心理学和建造学背景的IDEO 教母之称的Jane,
一直从为开发多IDEO以人乎本之设计工具。引用其在IDEO的经过“她付出了移情观察和心得原型的艺,现在吃普遍用于产品、服务同条件,及系统、组织与策略的换代以及设计达到。”她的书写《Thoughtless
Acts?》
展示了一直观察与设计灵感中的干。她近来撰文了《Design
Ethics》的短篇。

Bill Moggridge

英国显赫一时产品设计师,工业规划教学,交互设计与IDEO创始人。他盖采纳人性工程设计理论,同时为是现在产品设计主流理论的开发者。他筹划了第一华贝壳式笔记本电脑,至今以是笔记本的主流外型。他创作之《关键设计报告》介绍了互设计的历史,从Douglas
Engelbart到Will
Wright
到 Larry
Page
和 Sergey
Brin。

I don’t think that anyone has really told (people) what design is. It
doesn’t occur to most people that everything is designed — that every
building and everything they touch in the world is designed. Even
foods are designed now. So in the process of helping people understand
this, making them more aware of the fact that the world around us is
something that somebody has control of, perhaps they can feel some
sense of control, too. I think that’s a nice ambition.

2002-现在 设计思想在买卖领域站据了一个着重的岗位

由20年前计划思想开始让提及,经历了广大之迭代,最近才得确认。
设计咨询公司连“IDEO”,
数码智能设计企业要“青蛙”,软件设计公司只要“思特沃克”,服务计划企业如果“肯定牛”等还当02-08年光景开始调整协调之买卖战略,现在已化为企划行业之领先者。国内的店家转变比较晚至了2013年左右才开始调整,像Eico
Design。
若是买卖擅长的庄如麦肯锡等,也在2014年自从经过收购计划企业展开战略的变革。[科技中的设计\ 2017](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://designintechreport.files.wordpress.com/2017/03/dit-2017-1-0-1c-1.pdf)
服务规划领域的进化创建了通力合作企划与参与筹划之初工具与流程。多学科团队的通力合作企划这同转移打开了中间创新,使设计过程对每个人另行透明与管事。除了当统筹领域以经贸领域啊起使用用计划思想与协作规划之履行。Fuad
Luke,Sanders 和Manzini就是这块的先遣。
向阳包容性迈进的别。随着智能手机的推广,微软提出要面向公众的统筹,带在前所未有的包容性去琢磨和工作[Inclusive\ design\ at\ Microsoft](https://link.jianshu.com?t=https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/design/inclusive)

Alistair Fuad-Luke

Fuad-Luke一样个自称为规范计划主持人、教育家、作家和活动家,目前着授课后来之宏图执行。他的品种强调和社区与个人,社会福得和顶替经济网的绽开,合作,共同规划。他的修《Design
Activism》和《The
Eco-Design
Handbook》座谈设计以可持续发展中的意图。

Deborah Szebeko

Szebeko23春时在英国起了ThinkPublic社会设计机构,专门从事公共部门和非政府组织的设计和创新。用合作企划要关注社会问题,他们早就取得了大多项桂冠。

We use a mixture of design processes. We’ve got a diversity of
designers, including service designers, graphics designers,
information designers, programmers, marketers, social scientists,
positive psychologists, and even anthropologists. This diversity of
experts bring different techniques related to their disciplines, and
this mixture creates a unique design process — we call it a co-design
process — whereby we capture public views.

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

Kat
holmes微软首席设计总监,随着智能装备的寻常,科技产品应关注群众,应该往包容性迈进转变。设计个性具有包容,通过辨认排他性,我们会初步针对那些在日常生活中以及非吃欢迎的计划性接触的用户建起和理心。

Inclusive Design at Microsoft

因资源来以下:
[1] Thomas Lockwood. Design Thinking (Design Management Institue,
2009)
[2] John Maeda. Design In Tech Report(2016,2017)
[3] Jo Szczepanska. What is design thinking, why do I keep hearing
about
it?
[4] A BRIEF HISTORY OF DESIGN THINKING: THE
THEORY
[5] 大卫·瑞兹曼. 现代设计史
[6] Stefanie Di Russo.Understanding the behaviour of design thinking
in complex environments(2016)
[7] Rikke Dam, Teo Siang. What is Design Thinking and Why Is It So
Popular?
[8] Sean Van Tyne. Design Thinking: A Brief
History

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